EBM for Under 18s is a project that supports introducing Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) as part of the wider science activities in schools. Our aim to engage students, teachers and the public in EBM for a better understanding of its benefits and methodologies, and develop critical thinking to assess health claims and make better choices.
We are working with a number of partners who share that agenda including TestingTreatments the Education Endowment Foundation, James Lind Initiative, Informed Health Choices and Cochrane UK. Using resources from across the partnership we have been able to identify where key concepts for assessing claims about treatment effects link with the National Curriculum Key Stage 3 Science.
Understanding these links has enabled us to develop resources for teaching that can be piloted across the UK and assessed against the claim evaluation tools as a basis for implementation onto the national curriculum.
Development of critical thinking skills is embedded in the English National Curriculum, particularly in the sciences, where students build scientific understanding through experimentation and analysis alongside factual content.
EBM for Under 18’s is supporting teachers through the creation of resources that emphasise opportunities to teach critical thinking using health claims, opportunities that may be lost in the need to emphasise factual knowledge in such topics, especially where there is no direct link to classroom-based experiments.
At Lower Key Stage 2, children are expected to be “asking relevant questions and using different types of scientific enquiries to answer them”. They are also expected to “[use] results to draw simple conclusions … and raise further questions”. As they reach the end of Key Stage 2, children are “planning different types of scientific enquiries to answer questions, including recognising and controlling variables where necessary”. By the age of 11, children should be “reporting and presenting findings from enquiries, including conclusions, causal relationships and … trust in results”. They will also be “identifying scientific evidence that has been used to support or refute ideas or arguments”. The non-statutory guidelines recommend that children be given opportunities to “recognise which secondary sources will be most useful to research their ideas and begin to separate opinion from fact”.
When they reach Key Stage 3, pupils will have further opportunity to develop critical thinking skills. This will include the understanding that “science is about working objectively, modifying explanations to take into account of new evidence and ideas and subjecting results to peer review”. At Key Stage 3, there are many different skill statements that emphasise children’s ability to work scientifically, including the evaluation of data, “showing awareness of potential sources of random and systematic error”.
At Key Stage 4, which for many students is the final stage of their scientific education, there is greater emphasis on students understanding the key universal themes in science that can be used to explain diverse phenomena, for example “the assumption that every effect has one or more cause”. By the age of 16, students will have had opportunities to “develop their ability to evaluate claims based on science through critical analysis of the methodology, evidence and conclusions, both qualitatively and quantitatively”.
At all levels, the idea of “working scientifically” is developed through age-relevant topics. The EBM for Under 18’s project is providing relevant resources to allow teachers to explicitly develop these skills in their pupils.
Quotes throughout are taken from the National Curriculum for England, Science Programmes of Study, May 2015.
Key Stage 2 refers to children in school Years 3-6, aged 7-11.
Key Stage 3 refers to children in school Years 7-9, aged 11-14.
Key Stage 4 refers to children in school Years 10-11, aged 14-16.
Science is a compulsory part of the curriculum for all students up to the age of 16. National GCSE examinations in the sciences are sat by students at the end of Key Stage 4.
Cola RCT Workshop – Presentation
Cola RCT Workshop – Lesson Plan
Cola RCT Workshop – Wordsearches
Evidence-Based Medicine for Under 18s
January 2018 – ASE Annual Conference 2018 – University of Liverpool
September 2016 – Delivering Evidence-Based Medicine to Schools
June 2016 – EBM for unders 18s – Sarah Pannell – Evidence Live
March 2015 – EBM in schools for those taking GCSE and A levels. Lingfield Notre Dame, Surrey
Jan 2015 – TEBM Workshop, Assiciation for Science Education Annual Conference
Jan 2015 – Harms in Healthcare, Assiciation for Science Education Annual Conference
An over-enthusiastic science teacher
Talks available for download:
Lingfield March 2015 EBM – Intro to EBM
Lingfield March 2015 EBM – size of effect
The importance of considering all of the evidence when making decisions in healthcare
– Ruth Davis
– Dr Kamal Mahtani
– Prof Carl Heneghan
– Dr Liz Spencer
– Dr Sarah Pannel (@MrsDrSarah), a biochemist and structural biologist teaching Science at Crompton House School in Oldham. Sarah has joined CEBM to help develop and pilot EBM teaching material as a basis for implementation onto the national curriculum.
Kamal Mahtani, Deputy Director of the centre said, “Teaching at Lingfield School was a fantastic opportunity to engage with bright and enthusiastic students at an early stage in their academic path. As healthcare affects all of us it was wonderful to see and hear them understand some of the concepts that could allow them to make better decisions about their own health.”
@CebmOxford It was great to see you – thanks for coming down. Fab initial student response too @krmahtani @cebmblog #EBM
— Sarah (@MrsDrSarah) March 2, 2015