Resources

Study Designs

This short article gives a brief guide to the different study types and a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of study.

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Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) is the number of patients you need to treat to prevent one additional bad outcome (death, stroke, etc.).

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SpPin and SnNout

To understand what is meant by the terms SpPin and SnNout, we need to understand the notions of sensitivity and specificity.

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Pretest Probability

Pretest Probability is defined as the probability of a patient having the target disorder before a diagnostic test result is known.

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Likelihood Ratios

The Likelihood Ratio (LR) is the likelihood that a given test result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder compared to the likelihood that that same result would be expected in a patient without the target disorder.

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Searching exercise "warm-up"

This exercise is designed to walk you through the process of going from your “PICO” question to the steps of a rapid search for the evidence.

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Explanation of the 2011 OCEBM Levels of Evidence

This document explains the background to the Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine’s Levels of Evidence.

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Levels of Evidence: Introductory Document

This must be read before using the Levels: no evidence ranking system or decision tool can be used without a healthy dose of judgment and thought.

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Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine - Levels of Evidence (March 2009)

This is the first version of the Levels of Evidence, last revised in March 2009

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