Tools

EBM tools for the five stages of Evidence-Based Medicine

Asking focused questions is directly relevant to patients’ problems and phrased to direct your search to relevant and precise answers.

Finding the Evidence

Finding the evidence is the second step in evidence-based practice, after formulating a clearly focused clinical question.

Critical Appraisal tools

Critical appraisal worksheets to help you appraise the reliability, importance and applicability of clinical evidence.

Making a Decision

The integration of relevant evidence with clinical experience forms the cornerstone of decision making in evidence-based practice.

CATMaker and EBM Calculators

Put the “like” into your likelihood ratios with the CEBM’s CATmaker and EBM calculators.

Finding the Evidence 1 - Using PICO to formulate a search question

A mini tutorial on finding the evidence provided by Neal Thurley and Owen Coxall who regularly tutor on CEBM courses. It is recommended that you watch them in order.

Finding the evidence 2 - Turning search terms into a search strategy

This mini tutorial shows you how to convert your search question into a search strategy that will work on any bibliographic database.

Finding the evidence 3 - Turning your search strategy into results: searching PubMed

A video demonstration of how to get the best out of PubMed.

Glossary

A glossary of EBM terms

PaT Plot tool for randomised trials

This simple program will enable you to depict any randomised trial graphically however many components the interventions have.

Study Designs

This short article gives a brief guide to the different study types and a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of study.

Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) is the number of patients you need to treat to prevent one additional bad outcome (death, stroke, etc.).

SpPin and SnNout

To understand what is meant by the terms SpPin and SnNout, we need to understand the notions of sensitivity and specificity.

Pretest Probability

Pretest Probability is defined as the probability of a patient having the target disorder before a diagnostic test result is known.

Likelihood Ratios

The Likelihood Ratio (LR) is the likelihood that a given test result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder compared to the likelihood that that same result would be expected in a patient without the target disorder.