# Tools

EBM tools for the five stages of Evidence-Based Medicine

Asking focused questions is directly relevant to patients’ problems and phrased to direct your search to relevant and precise answers.

### Finding the Evidence

Finding the evidence is the second step in evidence-based practice, after formulating a clearly focused clinical question.

### Critical Appraisal tools

Critical appraisal worksheets to help you appraise the reliability, importance and applicability of clinical evidence.

### Making a Decision

The integration of relevant evidence with clinical experience forms the cornerstone of decision making in evidence-based practice.

### CATMaker and EBM Calculators

Put the “like” into your likelihood ratios with the CEBM’s CATmaker and EBM calculators.

### Finding the Evidence 1 - Using PICO to formulate a search question

A mini tutorial on finding the evidence provided by Neal Thurley and Owen Coxall who regularly tutor on CEBM courses. It is recommended that you watch them in order.

### Finding the evidence 2 - Turning search terms into a search strategy

This mini tutorial shows you how to convert your search question into a search strategy that will work on any bibliographic database.

### Glossary

A glossary of EBM terms

### PaT Plot tool for randomised trials

This simple program will enable you to depict any randomised trial graphically however many components the interventions have.

### Study Designs

This short article gives a brief guide to the different study types and a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the different types of study.

### Number Needed to Treat (NNT)

The Number Needed to Treat (NNT) is the number of patients you need to treat to prevent one additional bad outcome (death, stroke, etc.).

### SpPin and SnNout

To understand what is meant by the terms SpPin and SnNout, we need to understand the notions of sensitivity and specificity.

### Pretest Probability

Pretest Probability is defined as the probability of a patient having the target disorder before a diagnostic test result is known.

### Likelihood Ratios

The Likelihood Ratio (LR) is the likelihood that a given test result would be expected in a patient with the target disorder compared to the likelihood that that same result would be expected in a patient without the target disorder.