COVID-19: Is SARS-CoV-2 Also an enteric pathogen with potential fecal-oral transmission?
COVID-19: Is SARS-CoV-2 also an enteric pathogen with potential fecal-oral transmission? Spencer EA, Heneghan C.
Published on July 9, 2020
Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19
||Ding S, Liang TJ. Is SARS-CoV-2 Also an enteric pathogen with potential fecal-oral transmission? A COVID-19 virological and clinical Review [published online ahead of print, 2020 Apr 27]. Gastroenterology. 2020;S0016-5085(20)30571-0. 2020
Various observational and mechanistic evidence supports that SARS-CoV-2 can infect and be shed from the human gastrointestinal tract.
For SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mediates entry into host cells
ACE2 is an X-linked gene and has sex-specific expression profiles, helping explain sex differences in COVID-19 severity. Smokers and individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have higher ACE2 expression levels.
There is evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can survive adverse conditions in the Gastrointestinal system
SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been identified in endoscopic specimens of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, and rectum of COVID-19 patients; substantial amounts of SARS-CoV-2 RNA have been consistently detected in stool specimens.
What did they do?
This review aimed to summarize the literature on the potential of SARS-CoV-2 to infect the human gastrointestinal tract, and shed via the fecal route to generate orofecal transmission.
No search methods are reported and included studies were not assessed for quality.
|Clearly defined setting
||Demographic characteristics described
||Follow-up length was sufficient
||Transmission outcomes assessed
||Main biases are taken into consideration
What else should I consider?
CoVs belong to the Coronaviridae family within the Nidovirales order. They are enveloped, nonsegmented, positive-sense RNA viruses with a large genome of approximately 30 kb.
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Figure 1. A simplified image of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
Figure 3. Modes of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in humans.
About the authors